BOSMC is dedicated to ensuring that patients are informed at every stage of their treatment. Look through our Glossary of Terms to find out what various orthopaedic terms mean.

Achilles tendonitis – Inflammation of the heel cord that is the extension from the triceps surae group of muscles.

ACL – Anterior cruciate ligament.

ALPSA lesion – Anterior labrum periosteal sleeve avulsion.

Arthritis – Inflammation of a joint.

Arthroplasty – Reconstructive surgery of a joint (or joints) to restore motion because of ankylosis or trauma or to prevent excessive motion.

Atrophy – Reduction in size of an anatomic structure, frequently related to disuse or decreased blood supply.

Bankart lesion – Avulsion of the anterior glenoid labrum which is usually associated with anterior shoulder dislocations.

Bennet lesion – Posterior glenoid defect associated with overhead throwing injuries.

Biomechanics – The application of mechanical laws to living structures, specifically to the locomotor system of the human body.

Bone cysts – A sac containing liquid or semisolid material on a bone.

Bone metastases – The spread of malignant cancer cells to bone.

Bunion – Overgrowth of bone on the dorsal surface of the metatarsal head or dorsal malposition of the first metatarsal.

Carpal tunnel syndrome – Loss of sensation (and sometimes motor control) if the median nerve is cut off at the wrist because of compression of the nerve at the carpal ligament.

Cerebal palsy – A general term applied to central nervous system disorders found at birth or infancy and affecting muscle control.

Chondrosarcoma – Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making cartilage.

Club feet – Turning of the heel inward with increased plantar fexion (the toe-down motion of the foot at the ankle).

Custom splint fabrication – Custom or prefabricated orthotic devices designed to support, protect, immobilise or to correct deformities of the hand/upper extremity.

Desensitisation – Treatment of hypersensitivitiy and pain secondary to nerve injury, partial nerve injury, nerve compression, and soft tissue injuries.

Dupuytren’s Contracture – A thickening and contracture of the palmar fascia of the hand resulting in flexion deformities of the finger.

Ewing’s sarcoma – Malignant tumor of bone seen in children, composed of small round cells.

Flatfoot – Condition in which one or both arches have flattened out.

Hammer Toe – Variety of deformities on the second to fifth toes.

Hill-Sachs lesion – Bony defect in the humeral head caused by a shoulder dislocation.

Hip Dysplasia – Failure of normal bony modeling of the hip socket.

Iontophoresis – Process whereby ions in solution are transferred through the intact skin via electrical potential using bipolar electrodes.

Internal Glenoid Impingement – Pain syndrome caused by abrasion of the posterior labrum and rotator cuff.

Joint mobilisation – Use of specific passive procedures to restore accessory movements, stretch joint capsules and ligaments and to reduce pain and muscle guarding of stiff joints.

Kinematics – That phase of mechanics which deals with the possible motions of a material body.

Labral lesions – A fibrocartilaginous supporting structure which surrounds the glenoid bone in the shoulder.

Leg length inequity – One leg is shorter than the other. This is a common sequel of many congenital and acquired musculoskeletal diseases.

Malunion – State of healing of the bone in which bone unites but in an abnormal position and/or alignment.

Multidirectional instability – Shoulder laxity in multiple directions which causes pain or dysfunction.

Muscular dystrophy – A group of degenerative disorders of muscle resulting in atrophy and weakness.

Myofascial treatment – Treatment of a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia.

Nerve block – Injection of anaesthetic around a nerve to determine if a particular nerve is responsible for causing pain, and to relieve pain.

Neuromuscular re-education – Used in cases of post operative care of surgical repair of nerve injuries. Involves the retraining of reinnervated muscles.

Nonunion – State of healing of the bone in which there is no healing.

Oedema Control – Methods and devices used to minimise persistent swelling in the hand or upper extremity.

Orthotics – The science that deals with orthoses designed to provide external control, correction and support (orthoses = braces). 

Osteoarthritis – Chronic arthritis, usually mechanical, not caused by inflammatory process.

Osteomyelitis – Inflammation of bone marrow, cortex, tissue and periosteum; can be caused by any organism, but usually bacteria.

Osteonecrosis – Death of bone tissue.

Osteosarcoma – Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making bone.

Osteotomy – Surgical procedure that changes the alignment of bone with or without removal of a portion of that bone.

Paget’s Disease – Disease of excess bone removal and replacement with deformity.

PCL – Posterior cruciate ligament.

Peripheral nerve disorders – Problems involving numbness, tingling and weakness in the upper extremity.

Prosthetics – The science that deals with functional and/or cosmetic restoration for all or part of a missing limb (prostheses = artificial limb).

Rotator Cuff Disease – Inflammation or rupture of one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.

Rotator Cuff Impingement Syndrome – Painful rotator cuff abrasion by an overhanging acromion, AC joint, or coraco-acromial ligament.

Rotator Cuff Tear – Tear of the rotator cuff tendons (Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, or Subscapularis).

Rotator Cuff Tendinosis – Degenerative changes in rotator cuff tendon that occur with age and overuse.

Rotator Cuff Tendonitis – Inflammation of the rotator cuff and associated bursal sac.

Scar remodeling – Includes various methods and devices such as scar massage, pressure garments, serial casting, motion, stress and elastomeres or topical silicone gel pads.

SLAP – Lesion Superior labral lesion in the shoulder.

Tendon – The extension of muscle into a firm, fibrous cord that attaches into a bone or other firm structure.

Tendonitis – Inflammation of a tendon.

Tendinosis – Degenerative condition of the tendon often caused by overuse.

Tennis elbow – Stress tendonitis on the lateral epicondyle.

Torn anterior cruciate ligament – Tear in the deep ligament within the knee that are crossed.

Torn medial collateral ligament – A tear in the strong fibrous ligament on the medial side of the knee connecting the femur with the tibia.

Torn meniscus – A tear in the crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous disk between the two joint surfaces.

Torn rotator cuff – Tear in one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.

Total Joint Replacement – A joint replacement involing an internal prosthesis by removing the diseased joint and replacing the acetabluar components with either metal or plastic materials and a metal prosthesis of the femoral segment.

Trigger finger – Catching or locking of a finger.